Kaszab Zoltán (szerk.): A Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum évkönyve 68. (Budapest 1976)

Jánossy, D. ; Kordos, L.: Pleistocene-holocene Mollusc and Vertebrate fauna of two caves in Hungary

ANNALES HISTORICO-NATURALES MUSEI NATIONALES HUNGARICI TomuB 68. Budapest 1976 . Pleistocene­Holocene Mollusc and Vertebrate Fauna of Two Caves in Hungary by D. JÁNOSSY & L. KORDOS, Budapest Abstract — Besides Jankovich Cave two caves in Bükk Mountains, Petényi Cave and Rejtek I. Rock Shelter contained so far vertebrate fauna from Pleistocene-Holocene transitional period. The fade-out of certain Pleistocene species as well as tendencies of formation of present-day vertebrate fauna were traced. On the basis of these localities there is a possibily to refine Holocene vertebrate biostratigraphy. In addition we furnish palaeoclimatologieal data for phases of Holocene with the so-called "vole­thermometer" method. With 2 tables and 5 figures. Some 10.000-12.000 years ago, after the cooler fluctuations of climate (Dryas and Alleröd) following the last cold phase of Pleistocene (W III glaciation), Holocene period has began with its Preboreal Phase. In comparison with Pleistocene Holocene can be characterized by a rise of temperature variegated with larger and smaller climatic oscil­lations. Holocene research is at an advanced stage in many fields since it is a period near us, its sediments are covering vast areas and during this last 10.000 years human culture has evolved. While archaeologists, botanists, geomorphologists and glaciologists thoroughly analyzed the progress of events in Holocene we have only a modest knowledge concerning the changes of the vertebrate fauna. Now it is high time to remedy this omission because at Pleistocene-Holocene boundary one of the most significant animal mass extinctions and faunal changes in Earth histor\ r were enacted together with the beginning of Man's activity for remaking Nature. In Hungary a nearly complete sequence of Holocene layers is known from Janko­vich Cave (KRETZOI 1957). In the Aggtelek Karst a faunal succession based on several localities can be traced (KORDOS 1974a —b) and there are other data from several minor localities, too (JÁNOSSY 1959a —b, 1961; TOPÁL 1959, 1964). Archaeozoologists analyzed first of all the macromammal remains found at archaeological sites (BŐKÖNYI 1959, 1974). In foreign countries there are only a few localities, too. STEHLIN'S work (1941) and BRUNNER'S report (1951) from Germany were of prime importance. Data from Mediter­ranean territories are published by STORCH et al. (STORCH & UERPMANN 1969, STORCH 1970, FELTEN & STORCH 1970, KOCK, MALEC & STORCH 1972, BESENECKAR, SPITZENBER­GER & STORCH 1972) and BARTOLOMEI (BARTOLOMEI & BROGLIO 1964, BARTOEOMEI 1966) while the Tatra region was investigated by WOLOSZYN (1970) and SCHAEFER (1975). The archaeological locality of Zigeunerfels (near Sigmaringen) promises to be a very inte­resting site from this point of view (KOENIGSWALD 1972; TAUTE 1972). In the American Continent a comprehensive research of Holocene has been developed, and the vertebrate fauna was studied first of all by GUILDAY, MARTIN & MCCRADY (1964) and GUILDAY (1969, 1971). Holocene faunas of other territories are also little known because of the lack of suit­able excavations. That is why the sequence of layers in Petényi Cave and Rejtek I. Rock Shelter have prime importance. Petényi Cave (D. J. — L. K.)* Petényi Cave (otherwise Peskő II. Rock Shelter) is situated within one of the rocky formations being at the southwestern part of Bükk Plateau, in the wall of Peskő. It is lying at a height of 735 metres above sea level at the left side of Peskő Valley and at the eastern end of the rocks of Peskő, near Peskő Cave. The 13 metres long, 8 metres wide and 3.0-3.5 metres high Rock Shelter is the remain of a former more spacious cave. It is * After section titles there are authors' initials: D. J. stands for DÉNES JÁNOSSY. L. K. tor LÁSZLÓ KORDOS. Ann. Hist.-nat. Mus. Nat. Hung., 1976, 68.