Kaszab Zoltán (szerk.): A Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum évkönyve 68. (Budapest 1976)

Papp, L. ; Plachter, H.: On cave-dwelling Sphaeroceridae from Hungary and Germany (Diptera)

ANNALES HISTORICO-NATURALES MUSEI NATIONALIS HENGARICI Torrms 68. Budapest 1976. On Cave-Dwelling Sphaeroceridae írom Hungary and Germany (Diptera) by L. PAPP, Budapest & H. PLACHTER, Erlangen Abstraft — Locality data of nearly 600 Sphaerocerid specimens from vertical karst pits and caves in Hungary and the Federal Republic of Germany complete with ecolo­gical data, mainly in tables are compiled. Data from Hungary are compared with those from Germany ; furthermore, a comparison is made between the cave-dwelling Sphae­rocerid fauna and the fauna of small mammal burrows. Validity of the classification of the cave fauna elaborated by E. DTJDICH is proved for Sphaerocerid s . No troglobiont species was found, the bulk of the species belongs to the hemitroglophilous group. Morphological and physiological characteristics of the troglophilous Sphaerocerids are summarized. With 2 figures, 3 tables and 1 diagram. Heretofore numerous data have been gathered on the cave-dwelling Sphaeroceridae (BEZZI 1907, 1911, 1914; SCHMITZ 1909, 1914; VON ROEDER 1891; LERUTH 1931; WOLF 1934-38 etc. ; valuable critical summary of all the data is in DTJDA'S, 1938, book). Thus, it was well-known that the family of Sphaeroceridae (together with the Helomyzids) is the most important one among the low-numbered Acalyptratae families dwelling in caves. But earlier data are not entirely reliable owing to difficulties in the determination of spe­cies, and, the data are rather scattered, too. Thus, it was a pleasure to receive a material of 191 Sphaerocerid specimens, which were collected by DR. I. LOKSA in caves of Mt. Bükk and by D. BAJOMI in vertical karst pits at Alsóhegy (NE Hungary). The collectors much enhanced the value of these materi­als by the numerous valuable ecological data, which supplement the locality data. It is our agréable duty to express sincere thanks to DR. I. LOKSA and to D. BAJOMI for their valuable data and for presenting these and other fly materials to the Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest. H. PLACHTER carried out extensive zoological researches in the caves of "Franken­alb" in the Federal Republic of Germany ( = FRG), A part comprises 403 Sphaerocerid specimens collected in 21 caves. Many ecological data were also obtained, and independent­ly of collectings the average numbers of Sphaerocerids in every meter from the entrance of all the 21 caves were registered with naked eye in sunimer and in winter, furthermore, the average number of the Sphaerocerid specimens per cave was also established in the four biggest caves in each month over a period of one year. L. PAPP identified all the specimens in the above materials and made the evaluation of the data with especial regard to the life-habit of the Sphaerocerid species. The results are summarized in Tables 1-3. Remarks — 1 : on pieces of rotten wood and under small stones; 2 : aphotic part of the cave, under stones (between stones very small pieces of rotten wood); 3 : under stones, on lower side of pieces of wood, rather wet floor; 4: under wood, under stones; 5 : under sto­nes; 6: under a piece of wood, rather wet place; 7: on a dead mouse put into the cave 2 months before ; 8 : same as 7, in the carcass very small Brachycera larvae, rather wet place ; 9 : on lower side of a stone ; 10 : on a mouse carcass ; 11 : on the 30 th of October 1974 dead mice were put into tho cave, on the 3rd of January they were taken out, The Brachyceran larvae were transferred into a small box and were cultured at 90-100% of relative humi­dity and at 7.5 + 1.0 °C on cave 100 m. The larvae were fed with parts of dead mice and with powder of Urtica, The Brachyceran larvae preferred the meat (for detailed informa­tion see below); 12: on the wall, near the ground, on the ground much wood, scraps of paper, etc. ; 13 : at the bottom of a pit, ground covered with stones, with branches of wood ; 14. twilight zone, at the wall; 15: twilight zone; 16: under a small stone, aphotic part of the cave, rather much wood and other remnants of organic material (leaves, etc.); 17: on lower side of a stone, little pieces of wood scattered between the logs ; 18 : on branches of wood, rather wet place; 19: at excrement of aminals together with Collembola. MR. H. PLACHTER collected Sphaerocerids in 15 other caves in the FRG. Data are as follows: Diebslochhöhle bei TJtzmannsbach (D 19), 11. VIII. 73, 3 m from entrance: C. (Crumomyia) glabrifrons 1 $;8m:0. (Crumomyia) glaciális 1 çf ; 20 m: G. glaciális 1 çf ; 28. IH. 75, 1-16 m: C. ( Fungobia) nitida 2 çf, 4 9, Limosina beguaerti 1 9, L. crassimana Ann. Hist.-nat. Mus. Nat. Hung., 1976, 68. 13*