Antall József szerk.: Orvostörténeti közlemények 51-53. (Budapest, 1969)

TANULMÁNYOK - Zsebők Zoltán: A radiológia fejlődése Magyarországon (angol nyelven)

hospitals also provided opportunity for many physicians to became radiologists, for instance Ákos Kovács and Győző Zétény gained their knowledge in the János Hospital. The establishment of the Eötvös Loránd Radium and Roentgen Institute in 1936, with 90 beds, was a milestone in the history of radiology in Hungary and it gave Hungarian radiotherapy a new impetus. That was the first complex institute which gave a home both to radiotherapy and gammatherapy. Besides modern radiothérapie equipment the institute had a Belgian-made radium gun with 4 000 mg charge, and nearly 2 000 mg radium to be used for surgical and gynaecological purposes. The radiologists collaborated with surgeons, gynaecologists, internal physicians and pathologists and followed the lines of the model, the Radium Hemmet of Stockholm in preparing the plan of the treatment. The first director of the Institute was Vilmos Manninger, a profes­sor in surgery, who distinguished himself in the fight against cancer. Vilmos Czimft radiologist, Endre Kubányi surgeon, Arthur Probstner gynaecologist, Károly Wolff pathologist, all private professors, participated in the work of the institute as advisors, while the staff consisted of László Harmos, Nándor Karniss, István Szenthe, Ilona Szmedó and Zoltán Zsebők, and a physicist: Johanna Toperczer. They were joined in later years by Iván Rodé, Győző Lehoczky, László Bozóky and many others. The present list of names is far from covering Hungarian radiology in its entirety. But the lines of development in Hungarian radiology should also be touched upon briefly. It is natural that in the first place and mainly the results of the German language area were taken over. That is quite obvious as in the field of radiology at that time Germany led the way, preceding the English­speaking and Latin countries. Accordingly many of the Hungarian radiologists made shorter or longer study tours in the well-known Holzknecht Institute of Vienna, or visited the institutes of Leipzig. Dresden, Berlin, Munich and Hamburg to gain experience there for transplantation in Hungary. The develop­ment was greatly influenced by the foundation of the Magyar Röntgen Társaság (Hungarian Roentgen Society) in 1921 on the initiative of Imre Gergő ana Vidor Révész, who had been students as well as friends of Alexander in the years spent at the Polyclinic. That step was followed by the establishment of the Magyar Orvosok Röntgen Egyesülete (Hungarian Physicians' Roentgen Associ­ation) a year later. After fifty years we cannot deny that the polarization which started with the controversy over double contrast roentgenography did not ebb, and one group was formed around Kelen and Elischer at the university, and another at the Polyclinic from among Alexander and his friends, which the members of the general hospitals also joined. The latter circle was distinct politically, too, it was more hberal-minded. But the dividing line was not so sharp as to prevent some personal, even friendly contacts between the two groups. In 1922 the Roentgen Society started a journal Röntgenologia, edited by Andor Nagy, which was published until 1929 with much difficulty. Later this group was led by the circle of Gergő, Révész, and Bársony. The monthly lectures and demonstrations in the two societies provided a good opportunity for progress in the profession. Is was unfortunate, however, that in the given