Horváth Attila – H. Tóth Elvira szerk.: Cumania 1. Archeologia (Bács-Kiskun Megyei Múzeumok Közleményei, Kecskemét, 1972)

E. H. Tóth: Előzetes beszámoló a kunbábonyi avar fejedelmi leletről

/ Although we could only guess from the report that the find contained gold objects side by side with the „jar" we knew it for sure that the finds, carried away, could only be collected — with the help of several experienced museum officers — by taking the finders by surprise, There was no automobile at our disposal, so it was only on the following morning that we could go to the spot by the motorcar of the department of cultural affairs of the County Council. There we collected the majority of finds, recorded the delivers' and finders' recollections on tape, took photos of the finders and their families, and finally took a 16 mm film of the provenance (Fig. 1.). Tape recording helped to trace many yet unfound objects, and most of them could be collected during the following days, when the verifying excavations, and the riddling of exploited and collapsed sand was carried out simul­taneously. In this process 10 per cent of the gold objects was found. On the basis of the finders' statements and of attestation it can be pointed out that the grave lay in a hole of 130 cm depth and width, of 280 cm length, oriented towards the West. (Fig. 2.) The finders upset the layer under the finds, and took the objects out of the collapsed earth of the grave. Thus they could not survey the position of the skeleton and of the finds. We could estimate the place of the finds by the persons who had taken them, after having found out the time-order of their standing by the grave, and the duration of each person's stay there. The size of the apmhora — found first — is 14x65 centimeters. (Fig. 3.) Less bilgy vessels of similar elaboration, but with by tar not similarly shaped neck and handle of barbaric origin are found among the finds of the Saltovo-culture. Béla Posta noted two earthenware amphoras with pressed gold accessories found in the catacomb of Kercs. As veri­fied by a coin of the period of Ceasar Leo, the find dates from the second half of the 5th century. An amphora with two handles and pointed bottom was found at Gátér, in the horseman's grave No. 193. Owing to Byzantine influences, however, this vessel is likely to have been made in the workshop of a Byzantine master. This origin and the long prevalance of the type seem to be proved by the pieces dated from different years, and occuring on North Balkans, in North Italy as well as in Western Europe. The skull was found right after the amphora. According to Prof. Pál Lipták's preliminary opinion, this is the skull of a more than 60 year old man of mongoloid type, antropologically similar to some of our finds of Avar chiefs. Only fragments of the skeleton, knitted cervical vertebras, side by side with bones of sheep were collected by the finders. The rest of the skeleton, said to have been seen by many, at the bottom of the grave, could not be collected. We have tried to classify the gold objects on the basis of their technical and formal features, namely according to the fineness of gold, etc. It has become clear that they are accessories of at least three sets of belts. These sets are, however, by far not uniformly made up, thus, a few pieces could not be proved to be parts of any of the sets. It was much easier to clas­sify the dead's jewels, the accessories of his garment and those of the tools used at the funeral. Analogous finds of Bocsa and others indicate that the accessories of the belt with gold fake buckle, those being the heaviest and richest pieces in our find, representing to all certainty the highest rank, belong to one distinct group. The fittings represent two types in this case, too. Some are decorated with greenish, cloisonné glass inlays in a frame of, rows of cast globes, such are the end of large strap, (Fig. 4. 1.) the loop, webbing of hole, the end of small strap and the pair of sus­pender fittings. They are of greater size and weight than the related pieces of Bocsa, and a few of them, like the row of globes on the loop and suspender fittings, bear the traces of wear. Apart from this, their elaboration technique and material are very similar to those of their counterparts at Bocsa. Other similar objects are the end of large strap with scaly ornamentation and similar though smaller fittings of the find of Malaia Pereshcepina (near Poltava). In another group of belt fittings, finely polished, red alamandine stones have been found in setting framed by row of sold globes. In the find of Kunbábony, the oval and shield shape fittings as well as the fake­buckles make up this latter group. A typical part of the belt with gold fake-buckles is the fitting with set stones framed by rows of oval­shape globes. Two such objects have been found at 144